The ultimate guide to eating nuts on keto: ✅ Which nuts are allowed, ✅ best keto nuts to eat, ✅ how many nuts are too many.
Even though I’m not a big fan of snacks (but of intermittent fasting), nuts are a natural and convenient option for in-between times.
Since most nuts contain far more healthy fats than carbohydrates, they also fit perfectly into a keto diet meal plan.
However, you can’t have all nuts on keto.
While macadamia nuts, for example, use monounsaturated fatty acids to help you stay in ketosis, others hide a variety of carbohydrates.
Hence, it’s not always easy to find out which nuts are suitable for a low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet.
Therefore, I’m going to determine the best keto nuts below, which in addition to fat, also bring vitamins, electrolytes, proteins, fiber, and antioxidants into your diet.
Can You Eat Nuts on Keto?
Usually, nuts are an ideal keto snack. They are sugar-free, have few carbohydrates, are vegan, paleo- and keto-friendly.
So there are a few good reasons why nuts fit into your low-carb diet plan:
Nuts Are Rich in Healthy Fats
Since nuts are high-fat, low-carb foods, they perfectly suit the keto diet.
In moderation, they help you keep your blood sugar level stable, burn body fat, and lose weight.
For example, a handful of macadamia nuts provides around 21.5g of fat with only 1.5g of net carbs (= carbohydrates – dietary fiber).
Since most of the fat is oleic acid, as in olive oil, macadamia nuts also provide similar health and weight loss benefits.
However, raw macadamia nuts have the advantage over olive oil that the fatty acids are more resistant to damage.
Nuts Are a Natural Keto Snack
Since nuts are not only low-carb but also robust and, therefore, perfect for travel, they are the ideal whole food keto snack.
With this in mind, you can always have a small supply in your bag, car, or desk.
However, if you are on the road all day, you can quickly eat too many nuts on keto per day. Therefore it is recommended to carry only a reasonable portion (we’ll dig into this later).
Keto Nuts Are High in Fiber
Although nuts can have a notable carbohydrate content, this doesn’t mean they don’t fit into a ketogenic diet. Why?
Keto-friendly nuts are rich in fiber, which can be removed from the total carbohydrates as they are not metabolized and excreted by the body.
Therefore, the net carbs (= carbohydrates – dietary fiber) are low. Moreover, the dietary fibers in nuts help to dampen the blood sugar and insulin reaction.
For example, studies show that people have comparatively lower blood sugar and insulin levels after high-fiber meals (Chandalia et al. 20001).
Also, dietary fiber can inflate the food, form a gel that reduces energy density, and thus promote satiety.
Nuts Are Nutrient-Rich Keto Foods
Moreover, nuts are rich in minerals such as magnesium, potassium, selenium, and B and E vitamins:
- Selenium is anti-inflammatory and counteracts stress on a cellular level (Rayman 20122).
- Magnesium is an essential electrolyte that boosts energy production and protein synthesis (Vernon 19883).
- Potassium is also an essential mineral that is crucial for muscle contraction, health, and recovery (Shrimanker et al. 20204).
Which Nuts Are Allowed on Keto?
Since nuts are rich in fat and protein, they are ideal for ketogenic diets. Is it that simple?
However, nuts can impair the ability to burn fat – ketosis.
Hence, it’s essential to know which are the best nuts on a keto diet that promotes weight loss and gut health.
Since you have probably heard conflicting information about nuts, it may not be straightforward to choose the right nuts for a low-carb diet.
Therefore, this ultimate guide divides keto nuts into following categories:
- Best keto nuts: Ideal nuts on keto suitable as a daily snack
- Keto-friendly nuts: Nuts you can eat in moderation
- Nuts to avoid: Nuts inhibiting the benefits of a keto diet
6 Best Keto Nuts
For me, two factors are decisive in selecting the best keto nuts:
- The ratio of fat to net carbs (F/NC) and proteins
- The proportion of omega-3, omega-6, and monounsaturated fatty acids
While the first ratio is essential for ketosis, the latter values focus on anti-inflammatory effects in the body.
Because the only significant disadvantage of nuts is that among the polyunsaturated ones, omega-6 fatty acids often dominate, which can promote inflammation in the body.
Besides the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids can help fight inflammation too.
Not only do monounsaturated fatty acids help with weight loss, but they also reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (Pérez-Jiménez et al. 20025).
For example, the predominant fat in olive oil, macadamia nuts, and also in bacon (who would have guessed that?!) is the monounsaturated omega-9 fat oleic acid.
If you don’t heavily feast on them, the following low-carb nuts are perfect for a ketogenic diet.
Nutrition data of the nuts is based on a serving size of 100 grams to simplify comparison.
1. Pili Nuts
The pili nut is the hidden champion of the best keto nuts. Although it is hardly known, its nutritional values quickly show why it is the best nut on keto (*):
- Fat: 79.6g
- Saturated: 31.2g
- Monounsaturated: 37.2g
- Omega-3: 0g
- Omega-6: 7.6g
- Protein: 10.8g
- Net Carbs: 4.0g
- F/NC: 19.9
Not only do pilis have a super low carbohydrate content, they also have a significantly beneficial fat profile.
Since healthy monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids dominate in this nut, pilis are a secret weapon against cardiovascular disease (Mozaffarian et al. 20046).
Due to the enormously high fat content paired with very low carbohydrate, protein, and omega-6 contents make them the low-carb and keto nuts par excellence.
Furthermore, pili nuts are a first-class source of potassium.
2. Macadamia Nuts
Macadamia nuts consist of three-quarters fat (*):
- Fat: 75.8g
- Omega-6: 1.3g
- Protein: 7.9g
- Net Carbs: 5.6g
- F/NC: 13.5
More than 50% of the macadamia nut consists of monounsaturated fatty acids, which are known to improve insulin sensitivity and blood lipid levels. Furthermore, they help fighting abdominal fat and heart disease (Garg et al. 20077).
Macadamia nuts contain potassium, magnesium, and selenium. Thus, they prevent muscle cramps, lower blood pressure, and reduce the risk of strokes (Griel et al. 20088).
Because of these minerals and the low content of omega-6 fatty acids, they are also excellent keto foods to fight inflammation in the body.
Walnuts are the omega-3 champion among the best keto nuts (*).
- Fat: 65.2g
- Saturated: 6.1g
- Monounsaturated: 8.9g
- Omega-3: 9.0g
- Omega-6: 38.1g
- Protein: 15.2g
- Net Carbs: 7.0g
- F/NC: 9.3
With an omega-6 to omega-3 ratio of 4:1, which is unique among nuts, they can improve the seriously questionable average ratio of 17:1 in our bodies (Singh et al. 20109).
Therefore, walnuts can lower chronic inflammation risk. They are also high in fats, but moderate in protein.
Furthermore, studies have shown that walnuts help to reduce the risk of cancer, prevent cell damage, and lose weight (Neale et al. 201710).
Pecans have the third-highest absolute fat content on our list of best keto nuts (*):
- Fat: 72.0g
- Saturated: 6.2g
- Monounsaturated: 40,8g
- Omega-3: 1.0g
- Omega-6: 20.6g
- Protein: 9.2g
- Net Carbs: 4.4g
- F/NC: 16.4
Like macadamia nuts and olive oil, pecan nuts contain a high proportion of oleic acid.
This omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation (McKay et al. 201811).
Also, pecans contain little protein and carbohydrates.
The only point that pushes pecans out of the top 3 keto nuts is the unfavorable omega-3 to the omega-6 ratio. However, it is debatable whether pecans are better suited for keto than walnuts.
The hazelnut contains a moderate absolute amount of proteins and carbohydrates as well as omega-6 fatty acids (*):
- Fat: 60.7g
- Saturated: 4.5g
- Monounsaturated: 45.7g
- Omega-3: 0.1g
- Omega-6: 7.8g
- Protein: 15.0g
- Net Carbs: 7.0g
- F/NC: 8.7
In this sense, hazelnuts can be a healthy keto snack due to the dominant monounsaturated fatty acids.
According to studies, hazelnuts are rich in antioxidants, prevent cardiovascular disease, and improve blood lipid levels (Perna et al. 201612).
6. Brazil Nuts
Brazil nuts provide over 25g of fat per 1g of net carbohydrates (*):
- Fat: 66.4g
- Saturated: 15.1g
- Monounsaturated: 24.6g
- Omega-3: 0g
- Omega-6: 20.6g
- Protein: 14.3g
- Net Carbs: 4.8g
- F/NC: 13.8
Moreover, Brazil nuts are the richest whole food source of selenium. Selenium improves cognition in the elderly, combats oxidative stress, and thus inhibits the aging process (Cardoso et al. 201613).
Moreover, brazil nuts improve blood lipid levels (Colpo et al. 201314).
3 Keto-Friendly Nuts
The six preceding nuts are ideal for the keto diet due to their nutrient profile and can be eaten daily in appropriate portions.
On the contrary, you can enjoy the following three keto nuts in moderation. Therefore, they can bring variety into your diet, especially as a topping for keto-friendly dishes.
Almonds are the richest source of potassium (705mg per 100g) among the keto nuts. Also, they are low in net carbohydrates (*):
- Fat: 49.4g
- Saturated: 3.7g
- Monounsaturated: 8.9g
- Omega-3: 0g
- Omega-6: 12.0g
- Protein: 21.2g
- Net Carbs: 9.5g
- F/NC: 5.2
Only the relatively high protein and low fat content make the almond a keto-friendly nut that should not be eaten in large quantities.
According to a study, almonds can reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality in general, and help people lose weight (Luo et al. 201415).
Moreover, almond flour, which just consists of ground almonds, is a popular ingredient of keto baking recipes.
2. Pine Nuts
With over 68% fat and about 10% net carbohydrates, pine nuts are still an acceptable option on a keto diet (*):
- Fat: 68.4g
- Saturated: 4.9g
- Monounsaturated: 18.8g
- Omega-3: 0.1g
- Omega-6: 33.6g
- Protein: 13.7g
- Net Carbs: 9.4g
- F/NC: 7.3
What I think makes pine nuts more of a salad topping than an everyday snack is that their fat consists of 50% omega-6 fatty acids. So they can have an inflammatory effect in large quantities.
Pistachios are the protein champion among keto nuts (*):
- Fat: 44.4g
- Saturated: 5.4g
- Monounsaturated: 23.3g
- Omega-3: 0.3g
- Omega-6: 13.2g
- Protein: 20.6g
- Net Carbs: 17.7g
- F/NC: 2.5
However, in combination with the high net carbohydrate content, this makes them a danger for ketosis. Nevertheless, they are harmless in moderation and can give food a unique taste.
Therefore, they are an essential part of the Mediterranean diet, which is associated with improved heart health due to such healthy fats (Lippi et al. 201616).
Since they come in a shell, pistachios are eaten on average in 40% smaller portions. Therefore, they include, so to speak, an automatic portion control.
2 Keto Nuts to Avoid
First, the following foods are technically no nuts but often referred to as nuts.
Secondly, both have a particular property that negatively affects fat burning. Since nutrition is a complex issue, one cannot merely reduce it to macronutrients.
The peanut is a legume such as beans or peas and has a very high protein content (*):
- Fat: 49.2g
- Saturated: 6.8g
- Monounsaturated: 24.4g
- Omega-3: 0g
- Omega-6: 15.5g
- Protein: 25.8g
- Net Carbs: 7.6g
- F/NC: 6.5
Although the fat content is already low and the omega-6 content is high, the main problem with peanuts hides in specific plant proteins.
Peanuts are lectin bombs. For this reason, intolerance rates are rising steadily.
Lectins are proteins that act as plant toxins against predators (Macedo et al. 201517)
They can lead to autoimmune diseases by inducing the formation of antibodies against healthy human cells (Saeki et al. 201418).
On the one hand, lectins can penetrate the intestinal wall and infiltrate pathogens. On the other hand, they also promote weight gain by binding to insulin and leptin receptors(Shechter 198319; Kamikubo et al. 200820).
Although many people want to declare peanuts as keto-friendly, they counteract any weight loss ambitions. Thus, peanuts are not suitable for a ketogenic diet.
The nutrition data makes it obvious: the net carbohydrates in cashews are too high (*):
- Fat: 43.8g
- Saturated: 7.8g
- Monounsaturated: 23.8g
- Omega-3: 0.1g
- Omega-6: 7.8g
- Protein: 18.2g
- Net Carbs: 29.4g
- F/NC: 1.5
Moreover, cashews are not nuts either and, like peanuts, contain loads of lectins. In short, cashews promote weight gain in two ways.
Furthermore, they are the seeds of the cashew apple and belong to the legume family as well.
Although some diet gurus like to pronounce cashews keto-friendly, even a small portion can kick you out of ketosis.
Seeds on Keto
Like nuts, seeds ketogenic diet plans often contain seeds. Accordingly, they are a basis for flour alternatives as well.
However, most seeds are not as suitable as nuts on a ketogenic diet. Nevertheless, there is a clear champion among keto seeds that I can only warmly recommend.
3 Seeds to Limit on Keto
The following seeds show nutrition facts acceptable for keto dieters and are therefore often celebrated as a keto-friendly ingredient.
However, they share a significant disadvantage with cashews and peanuts: lectins.
Since these sticky proteins can attach themselves to nerve endings of the intestine and brain, cause weight gain, inflammation, and toxic reactions, they inhibit the goals of the keto diet (Freed 199921).
For this reason, the following seeds should only be consumed as an exception on the keto diet.
1. Chia Seeds
The hype about chia seeds as so-called superfood will probably not have passed you by either, as they have an excellent nutrient density at first sight (*):
- Fat: 30.8g
- Saturated: 3.2g
- Monounsaturated: 2.1g
- Omega-3: 17.5g
- Omega-6: 5.8g
- Protein: 15.6g
- Net Carbs: 6.1g
- F/NC: 5.0
Especially the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio of chia seeds looks remarkable. However, studies have shown that people cannot adequately absorb the omega-3 fatty acids from chia seeds.
Due to the high lectin content, the alleged anti-inflammatory omega-3 food is rather pro-inflammatory.
Besides, the same study found that chia seeds do not help with weight loss either (Nieman et al. 200922).
2. Sunflower Seeds
Sunflower seeds are protein-rich seeds with a manageable amount of carbohydrates (*):
- Fat: 51.5g
- Saturated: 4.5g
- Monounsaturated: 18.5g
- Omega-3: 0.1g
- Omega-6: 23.0g
- Protein: 20.8g
- Net Carbs: 11.4g
- F/NC: 4.5
What makes sunflower seeds so popular is the antioxidative vitamin E. They also contain copper, selenium, magnesium, and B vitamins.
However, supposed benefits are countered by the anti-inflammatory effects of the lectins, which reduces them to an acceptable salad topping on keto.
Furthermore, you should never use sunflower oil, as this omega-6-heavy vegetable oil can oxidize already during production.
3. Pumpkin Seeds
Due to their high percentage of net carbs and proteins, pumpkin seeds are not great for keto (*):
- Fat: 45.8g
- Saturated: 8.7g
- Monounsaturated: 14.3g
- Omega-3: 0.2g
- Omega-6: 20.7g
- Protein: 24.5g
- Net Carbs: 13.9g
- F/NC: 3.3
Nevertheless, with 807mg per 100g, they are the richest supplier of potassium among nuts and seeds. Therefore, you can consume them exceptionally when muscle cramps occur.
Nevertheless, pilis, macadamia nuts, or almonds are probably the better choice in case of potassium deficiency – not just because of lectins.
Flaxseed Are the Best Keto Seeds
Not just because of their incredible fat to net carbs ratio, flaxseed is the best seed on a keto diet (*):
- Fat: 42.4g
- Saturated: 3.7g
- Monounsaturated: 7.5g
- Omega-3: 22.8g
- Omega-6: 5.9g
- Protein: 18.3g
- Net Carbs: 1.6g
- F/NC: 26.5
Especially for vegetarians and vegans among the keto dieters, flaxseed is indispensable, as it is one of the few significant vegetable omega-3 sources.
Accordingly, they improve blood clotting, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, diabetes, and inflammation (Faintuch et al. 200723; Mandaşescu et al. 200524; Kawakami et al. 201525; Bloedon et al. 200426).
Notably, flaxseed must be freshly ground to be better absorbed by the body.
For example, you can put them in a pepper mill for this purpose.
How Many Nuts on Keto Are Too Many?
Whether as a snack or as a recipe ingredient, it is vital to maintain a certain amount when eating keto nuts.
My tip is not to include nuts as a snack every day. When traveling, do not carry more than a small pack of 4 ounces at most. For example, this is serving size of macadamia nuts already yields 800 calories.
With this in mind, there are several good reasons to keep an eye on portion sizes:
Although the keto diet primarily aims at keeping the storage hormone insulin low to enable fat burning, nuts can bring a considerable amount of energy into the body.
Even though these calories are burned more efficiently, you can easily overlook the serving size of nuts. And this can ultimately lead to excess energy stored as subcutaneous belly fat.
Although the best keto nuts contain less than 5 grams of net carbs, they can be a significant factor in getting you over the daily limit.
With 5-10% of your energy intake from carbohydrates, that’s 25-50g of net carbohydrates for a daily basal metabolic rate of 2000 calories.
However, without the consumption of other net carbs, you would need to eat about 500-1000g of our best keto nuts to exceed net carbs. Nevertheless, such serving sizes are not at all desirable due to the following points.
Besides lectins, which are mainly found in cashews and peanuts, most nuts also contain oxalates.
These antinutrients, which also occur in spinach, for example, are one of the leading causes of kidney stones (Mitchell et al. 201927).
Hence, they are an additional reason to limit the portion size.
Besides oxalates, nuts contain a further antinutrient.
Phytic acid inhibits the absorption of zinc and iron, which can lead to deficiency symptoms (Gupta et al. 201528).
When you experience flatulence or other digestive problems after eating nuts, phytic acid could be a cause.
In this case, it is best to generally avoid nuts.
Which Nuts to Eat on Keto?
When buying nuts, it is essential to read the packaging carefully and avoid the following additives:
- Vegetable oils
- Safflower oil
- Grape seed oil
- Sunflower oil
- Soybean oil
- Corn germ oil
- Cottonseed oil
- Sesame oil
- Rapeseed oil
Because these industrial vegetable oils oxidize during production, they are highly pro-inflammatory and increase the overall mortality rate (Ramsden et al. 201329).
Hence, you should always stay away from them and never use them for frying. Extra virgin coconut and olive oil are better plant-based alternatives.
Nevertheless, you are on the safe side with raw, whole food nuts. When buying nut flours, it is also vital that they contain only ground nuts without additives.
Best Keto Nuts to Eat Have a Great Fat Profile
Nuts are a natural keto snack. Also, they are a good source of healthy fats, proteins, various minerals, and antioxidants, while their carbohydrate content is low.
Moreover, nuts and seeds are saturating keto foods that bring variety to low-carb and keto diets.
Accordingly, they add extra flavor and crunch to keto-friendly meals and desserts.
Nevertheless, it is essential to remember that not all nuts suit a ketogenic diet.
Therefore, the best keto nuts have a high ratio of fat to net carbohydrates, a high percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a low rate of omega-6 fatty acids.
Although pili nuts are my favorite, native walnuts or macadamias are excellent nuts on keto as well.
Nevertheless, it is advisable not to eat an 8-ounce pack at once and enjoy nuts in moderation.
Keto Nuts to Eat FAQ
What nuts can you eat on the keto diet?
Pili nuts, macadamia nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts ????, pecans, and Brazil nuts are the best nuts to eat on keto.
Can we eat nuts in keto diet?
Since they contain healthy fats and few carbs, you can eat most nuts on the keto diet. Check out this article for the best keto nuts to eat and for those to avoid.
What kind of nuts are low in carbs?
The best low-carb nuts are pili nuts, macadamia nuts, walnuts, hazelnuts ????, pecans, and brazil nuts.
What are the worst nuts to eat?
The worst nuts to eat are cashews and peanuts ????. Furthermore, they are not nuts but legumes. Their pro-inflammatory compounds can inhibit weight loss and foster autoimmune disease.
1Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 11;342(19):1392-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200005113421903. PubMed PMID: 10805824.
2Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9. Epub 2012 Feb 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 22381456.
3Vernon WB. The role of magnesium in nucleic-acid and protein metabolism. Magnesium. 1988;7(5-6):234-48. Review. PubMed PMID: 2472534.
4Shrimanker I, Bhattarai S. Electrolytes. 2020 Jan;. Review. PubMed PMID: 31082167.
5Pérez-Jiménez F, López-Miranda J, Mata P. Protective effect of dietary monounsaturated fat on arteriosclerosis: beyond cholesterol. Atherosclerosis. 2002 Aug;163(2):385-98. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9150(02)00033-3. Review. PubMed PMID: 12052487.
6Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1175-84. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1175. PubMed PMID: 15531663; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1270002.
7Garg ML, Blake RJ, Wills RB, Clayton EH. Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Lipids. 2007 Jun;42(6):583-7. doi: 10.1007/s11745-007-3042-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 17437143.
8Griel AE, Cao Y, Bagshaw DD, Cifelli AM, Holub B, Kris-Etherton PM. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Nutr. 2008 Apr;138(4):761-7. doi: 10.1093/jn/138.4.761. PubMed PMID: 18356332.
9Singh RB, Demeester F, Wilczynska A. The tsim tsoum approaches for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Res Pract. 2010;2010:824938. doi: 10.4061/2010/824938. Epub 2010 Jun 29. PubMed PMID: 20671994; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2910415.
10Neale EP, Tapsell LC, Martin A, Batterham MJ, Wibisono C, Probst YC. Impact of providing walnut samples in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss: a secondary analysis of the HealthTrack trial. Food Nutr Res. 2017;61(1):1344522. doi: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1344522. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28747865; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5510231.
11McKay DL, Eliasziw M, Chen CYO, Blumberg JB. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018 Mar 11;10(3). doi: 10.3390/nu10030339. PubMed PMID: 29534487; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5872757.
12Perna S, Giacosa A, Bonitta G, Bologna C, Isu A, Guido D, Rondanelli M. Effects of Hazelnut Consumption on Blood Lipids and Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2016 Nov 25;8(12). doi: 10.3390/nu8120747. Review. PubMed PMID: 27897978; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5188407.
13Rita Cardoso B, Apolinário D, da Silva Bandeira V, Busse AL, Magaldi RM, Jacob-Filho W, Cozzolino SM. Effects of Brazil nut consumption on selenium status and cognitive performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):107-16. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0829-2. Epub 2015 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 25567069.
14Colpo E, Vilanova CD, Brenner Reetz LG, Medeiros Frescura Duarte MM, Farias IL, Irineu Muller E, Muller AL, Moraes Flores EM, Wagner R, da Rocha JB. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers. J Nutr Metab. 2013;2013:653185. doi: 10.1155/2013/653185. Epub 2013 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 23840948; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3693158.
15Luo C, Zhang Y, Ding Y, Shan Z, Chen S, Yu M, Hu FB, Liu L. Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul;100(1):256-69. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.076109. Epub 2014 May 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 24847854.
16Lippi G, Cervellin G, Mattiuzzi C. More pistachio nuts for improving the blood lipid profile. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence. Acta Biomed. 2016 May 6;87(1):5-12. Review. PubMed PMID: 27163889.
17Macedo ML, Oliveira CF, Oliveira CT. Insecticidal activity of plant lectins and potential application in crop protection. Molecules. 2015 Jan 27;20(2):2014-33. doi: 10.3390/molecules20022014. Review. PubMed PMID: 25633332; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6272522.
18Saeki Y, Ishihara K. Infection-immunity liaison: pathogen-driven autoimmune-mimicry (PDAIM). Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Oct;13(10):1064-9. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.024. Epub 2014 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 25182200.
19Shechter Y. Bound lectins that mimic insulin produce persistent insulin-like activities. Endocrinology. 1983 Dec;113(6):1921-6. doi: 10.1210/endo-113-6-1921. PubMed PMID: 6357762.
20Kamikubo Y, Dellas C, Loskutoff DJ, Quigley JP, Ruggeri ZM. Contribution of leptin receptor N-linked glycans to leptin binding. Biochem J. 2008 Mar 15;410(3):595-604. doi: 10.1042/BJ20071137. PubMed PMID: 17983356.
21Freed DL. Do dietary lectins cause disease?. BMJ. 1999 Apr 17;318(7190):1023-4. doi: 10.1136/bmj.318.7190.1023. PubMed PMID: 10205084; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1115436.
22Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, Jin F. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res. 2009 Jun;29(6):414-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.05.011. PubMed PMID: 19628108.
23Faintuch J, Horie LM, Barbeiro HV, Barbeiro DF, Soriano FG, Ishida RK, Cecconello I. Systemic inflammation in morbidly obese subjects: response to oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. Obes Surg. 2007 Mar;17(3):341-7. doi: 10.1007/s11695-007-9062-x. PubMed PMID: 17546842.
24Mandaşescu S, Mocanu V, Dăscaliţa AM, Haliga R, Nestian I, Stitt PA, Luca V. Flaxseed supplementation in hyperlipidemic patients. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2005 Jul-Sep;109(3):502-6. PubMed PMID: 16607740.
25Kawakami Y, Yamanaka-Okumura H, Naniwa-Kuroki Y, Sakuma M, Taketani Y, Takeda E. Flaxseed oil intake reduces serum small dense low-density lipoprotein concentrations in Japanese men: a randomized, double blind, crossover study. Nutr J. 2015 Apr 21;14:39. doi: 10.1186/s12937-015-0023-2. PubMed PMID: 25896182; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4409715.
26Bloedon LT, Szapary PO. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Rev. 2004 Jan;62(1):18-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00002.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 14995053.
27Mitchell T, Kumar P, Reddy T, Wood KD, Knight J, Assimos DG, Holmes RP. Dietary oxalate and kidney stone formation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2019 Mar 1;316(3):F409-F413. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00373.2018. Epub 2018 Dec 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 30566003; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6459305.
28Gupta RK, Gangoliya SS, Singh NK. Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Feb;52(2):676-84. doi: 10.1007/s13197-013-0978-y. Epub 2013 Apr 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 25694676; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4325021.
29Ramsden CE, Zamora D, Leelarthaepin B, Majchrzak-Hong SF, Faurot KR, Suchindran CM, Ringel A, Davis JM, Hibbeln JR. Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Feb 4;346:e8707. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e8707. PubMed PMID: 23386268; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4688426.