It may make you cry and may not be ideal before a date. However, onion is surprisingly healthy, tasty, and versatile.
Find out why you should never underestimate onion again based on science!
Is Onion Good for You?
Onions belong to the genus of leek plants (Allium), which also includes garlic and chives. For a good reason, these plants are cornerstones of a wide variety of culinary cultures.
Vegetables of this genus contain vitamins, minerals, and highly effective bioactive substances that have been proven to promote health.
The health benefits of onion have been known for over 4000 years. Accordingly, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Chinese have used onions medicinally to treat tumors (Nicastro et al. 20151).
Are Onion Rings Good for You?
Although we speak of fast food, this is a legitimate question, especially since the main ingredient is healthy onions. But appearances are deceptive.
With onion rings, the dough prevails, which is also fried in cheap industrial vegetable oil. The combination of refined vegetable oils and refined carbohydrates is a double assault on your health.
While the refined flour promotes inflammation in your gut, frying damages the omega-6 fat to apply oxidative stress on your cells. Hence, onion rings are unhealthy.
Nevertheless, you can make a healthier version of this fast-food classic yourself. Therefore, it is essential to use a heat-resistant fat like coconut oil, lard, or ghee.
Are There Benefits of Eating Onion Raw?
The reason why raw onions can be more effective is that they contain organic sulfur compounds hiding in their delicate oils.
Heat partially destroys them. However, if the onion is eaten raw, its juice can irritate or be challenging to digest.
Those who cannot tolerate raw onions can still choose from a variety of delicious cooking methods. For example, it is smart to bake onions in their skin. You can imagine this in a similar way to baking potatoes.
While the active ingredients remain in the onion, its taste is milder and has a delicious caramel note.
Which Onion to Use?
Like most leek plants, onions are generally healthy. However, depending on the subspecies, they can have different health benefits.
It has white flesh surrounded by thick brownish-yellow skin. Accordingly, the yellow onion is the most common conventional onion as we know it.
Quercetin – a natural yellow dye – is the essential antioxidant in the onion.
They have a papery, white skin and are milder and sweeter than conventional yellow onions.
Although they are particularly effective against fungal infections, the white onion contains the least amount of antioxidants (Lanzotti et al. 20122).
Since red onions can contain twice as many antioxidants as other species, they are probably the best fit for an anti-inflammatory diet and lifestyle.
The antioxidant anthocyanins in red onions give them their characteristic color. These are flavonoids, as we know them from red wine or green tea.
These unique polyphenols are a guarantee for a variety of health benefits.
Spring onions are usually planted at the end of summer to grow through the winter and be ready for harvest in spring.
You can recognize spring onions by the small, round, white bulb at their base.
Nevertheless, they still have a gentler taste than regular onions, which are left in the ground longer and grow larger.
As they are similarly nutritious as other onions, spring onion health benefits are similar as well.
10 Onion Health Benefits
Although onion consists of almost 90% water, it provides a remarkable variety of nutrients.
Minerals such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium or vitamins B6 and B9 should be emphasized (*).
Furthermore, adequate vitamin C content makes it a food that promotes collagen formation for skin, hair, and bones.
Nevertheless, real onion benefits lie in its bioactive substances, the polyphenols.
1. Is Packed With Antioxidants
Onions are full of antioxidants. Above all, they stem from various polyphenols. However, the essential flavonoid quercetin is abundant in all onions.
In total, you can find more than 25 different flavonoids in various types of onions. Additionally, red onions contain over 25 anthocyanins (Slimestad et al. 20073).
These antioxidants prevent the oxidation of fatty acids, both in food and cells.
Antioxidant polyphenols are found precisely in the outer layers of the onion. Therefore, removing the two outer flesh layers can cost up to ¾ of all anthocyanins and up to ¼ of quercetin.
Nevertheless, experts believe that quercetin from onions is absorbed much better by the body than from dietary supplements.
2. Boosts the Immune System
Since the bioactive substances in onions have anti-inflammatory benefits, it is not surprising that they can strengthen the immune system in general.
In addition to reducing free radicals, the active ingredients in onion also develop anti-allergic properties.
These effects occur through the stimulation of the immune system, antiviral activities, reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, or histamine release (Mlcek et al .20166).
Due to the reduced histamine release, onions can combat sneezing, weeping, and itching in allergic reactions.
Accordingly, a study in the American Journal of Physiology found that quercetin relaxes respiratory muscles and may relieve asthma symptoms (Townsend et al. 20137).
3. Offers Antibacterial Properties
That a cheap and abundant food can fight bacteria comes in handy – especially in times of the coronavirus.
Onions can fight various potentially dangerous bacteria such as E. coli or S. aureus (Sharma et al. 20188).
Onions can also inhibit the growth of pathogens, such as cholera, which is still a significant public health problem in developing countries (Hannan et al. 20109).
Laboratory experiments show that the flavonoid quercetin is responsible for the onions’ broad antibacterial benefits (Ramos et al. 200610).
Quercetin can damage cell walls and membranes of bacteria (Wang et al. 201811).
4. Helps Prevent Heart Disease
Both the antioxidant and sulfur compounds in onions counteract blood clotting, which reduces the risk of heart attacks and strokes (Chan et al. 200212).
Besides its anti-inflammatory effect, the onion’s ability to lower triglyceride levels reduces heart disease risk in general (Vazquez-Prieto et al. 201113).
5. Lowers Blood Pressure
In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial, researchers determined the antihypertensive effect of quercetin extracted from onions.
In this study, the flavonoid could lower blood pressure, although the subjects were overweight to obese (Brüll et al. 201514).
Since many people argue that the body better absorbs quercetin from food, real onions could even be more beneficial for hypertension than supplements.
6. Help Regulates Blood Sugar
Specific sulfur compounds, quercetin, and chromium in onions can have antidiabetic effects.
A meta-analysis carried out in 2014 showed that patients with type 2 diabetes had better liver enzymes and lower glycaemic values after eating onions (Akash et al. 201415).
Also, further studies have shown that quercetin interacts with cells of the liver, small intestine, pancreas, muscles, and fatty tissue to regulate blood sugar levels throughout the body (Eid et al. 201716).
7. Has Anticancer Properties
According to a study conducted by the University of Guelph, different onion varieties can contribute to the destruction of breast and colon cancer cells (Murayyan et al. 201717).
These anticancer properties have been associated with sulfur compounds and flavonoids in onions.
In this sense, the sulfur compound onionin A in onions can prevent the growth of lung tumors and metastases (Fujiwara et al. 201618).
Besides quercetin, fisetin – another flavonoid – is essentially responsible for the tumor-inhibiting effect (Wang et al. 201819).
Furthermore, studies have shown that people with the highest onion consumption have the lowest cancer rates (Turati et al. 201420).
8. Helps Prevent Belly Fat
Quercetin is considered one of the few substances that can keep 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in check (Torres-Piedra et al. 201021).
As this enzyme can reactivate the cortisol stored in fat cells, it promotes fat formation – even without stress (Ayachi et al. 200622).
9. Boosts Bone Density
A 2009 study conducted by Menopause magazine found that daily consumption of onions improves bone density in women who have gone through or ended menopause.
Women who ate onions regularly had a 20 percent lower risk of hip fracture than women who had never eaten onions.
Moreover, the latter also had 5 percent less bone mass than those who had been eating onions frequently (Matheson et al. 200923).
Similarly, a recent study of 24 middle-aged and postmenopausal women showed that drinking onion juice resulted in improved bone mineral density and antioxidant activity (Law et al. 201624).
10. Protects Brain Function
Who does not worry about cognition and brain health over the years?
Studies show that eating onion prevents dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier and water retention in the brain (Hyun et al. 201325).
The researchers suspect that the effect is again due to the onion’s antioxidants.
Onion Benefits for Liver and Gut Health
Onions are not only rich in fiber but also in prebiotics.
These indigestible fibers are consumed by healthy intestinal bacteria and thus contribute to gut health.
As a result, gut bacteria form short-chain fatty acids, such as Acetate or Butyrate. Besides intestinal health, short-chain fatty acids also strengthen the immune system and digestion (Canani et al. 201126).
Moreover, eating onions increases lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gut, leading to better digestion (Markowiak et al. 201727).
Furthermore, consuming onion can protect the liver and improve its enzyme production through its sulfur compounds (Akash et al. 201428).
Benefits of Onion for Eyes
According to recent studies, the substances in onion juice can have a positive effect on eye health.
Accordingly, one study used onion juice as an eye drop, which could inhibit additional eye flora growth.
Thus, onions can be a potential cure for common eye infections such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis (Nejabat et al. 201429).
But before administering onion juice as eye drops in a self-experiment, please talk to your doctor.
Nevertheless, onion extracts can be healthy for the eyes by preventing corneal clouding, according to studies (Kim et al. 201630).
Furthermore, some suggest that the sulfides in onions can prevent cataracts as well.
Onion Benefits for Hair
Onions are an inexpensive household remedy that has been reported to improve both the growth and strength of hair.
The application of onion juice to hair and scalp can increase the blood flow to the hair follicles and promote hair growth. Thereby, some people also notice increased hair volume.
Due to its sulfur content, onion juice may support hair growth. Since active sulfur compounds stimulate the production of collagen, they may enhance hair growth.
Collagen is the protein our body needs to produce hair and nails. For this reason, sulfur is also used to treat thin hair.
Accordingly, a study shows that people who had washed their hair with onion juice showed enhanced hair growth.
Therefore, the researchers conclude that onion can be effective against Alopecia areata (AA), an acute type of hair loss (Sharquie et al. 200231).
Furthermore, onion juice may reduce itching and dandruff, restore shine, and prevent hair graying.
To reap these onion benefits for your hair, massage fresh onion juice into your scalp and hair and leave for 15 minutes.
Afterward, rinse it out and wash the hair with shampoo.
Benefits of Onion for Skin
Not only the scalp benefits from onions. An onion face mask can also contribute to skincare.
When you massage fresh onion juice into the skin, blood circulation and the skin’s appearance may improve. As a result, the skin looks more youthful and smooth.
Accordingly, a study of post-operative scars has found that onion extract’s application improves redness, softness, texture, and overall skin appearance (Draelos 200832).
With this in mind, a proven home remedy is to apply a 1:1 mixture of onion juice and olive oil to the skin, leave the mask on for 20 minutes, and then rinse off.
Such onion masks may apply the following benefits to your skin:
- Brings skin to shine: The antibacterial properties of onion juice also protect your skin. In addition to protecting against free radicals, onion provides A, C, and E vitamins to contribute to skin health and gives it a radiant glow.
- Alleviates acne: The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory properties of onion can protect your skin from acne-causing bacteria and skin infections. Therefore, you can utilize onions against acne and pimples. Also, you may use onion extract or creams to target acne scars.
- Removes skin spots: A 1:1 antiseptic mixture of onion juice and apple cider vinegar helps remove dark spots on the skin (melasma or hyperpigmentation) when used twice a day.
- Reverses skin aging: The antioxidative polyphenols in onions have enormous anti-aging potential. For example, quercetin can slow down their aging process by intercepting free radicals and smoothen the skin. Additionally, sulfur and vitamins contribute to this effect.
If the health benefits of onions for the skin have convinced you, here is an ingenious onion mask recipe that can combine all these effects and give the skin more radiance.
Onion Face Mask Benefits
- 1 Onion
- 2 tbsp Honey
- 1/2 cup Water or Milk (as you prefer)
- 1 pinch Nutmeg (ground)
- 1 dash Apple Cider Vinegar (organic with mother)
- Peel and clean the onion well to remove germs and bacteria from its surface.
- Cut it into pieces and put them in the blender. Add water or milk to puree them.
- Once the onion has turned into a paste, add honey, apple cider vinegar, and nutmeg. Mix well.
- Apply the mask to your clean face. Distribute well, especially to cover stains and bumps.
- Leave to work for 15-20 minutes and then rinse off with plenty of warm water.
Onion Benefits for Women
Because of the unpleasant smell, especially women shy away from eating onions.
If you are one of them, you now know the range of onion benefits you have missed out on so far. The bottom line is that the following benefits of onions, which we have already discussed in detail, are essential for women:
- Prevents cancer
- Promotes heart health
- Protects the skin against aging
- Treats acne and pimples
- Promotes hair growth
Researchers recently recommend onions for postmenopausal women due to phytochemicals improving blood lipids and protecting DNA (Ko et al. 202033).
Not only postmenopausal women but also middle-aged women can benefit from improved bone mineral density and antioxidant activity through the consumption of onions, according to another study (Law et al. 201634).
In short, the potential of onions as a superfood for women is enormous. You may want to think twice before skipping it, mostly since it tastes delicious as well.
Benefits of Onion for Men
The fact that the onion is especially popular among men has a good reason.
After all, thousands of years ago, the Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians already saw onions as a symbol of vitality. Today the onion is considered an aphrodisiac, especially in Africa.
A study on impotence and erectile dysfunction shows that this is not just an empty promise (Kamatenesi-Mugisha et al. 200535).
Consequently, a good portion of onion on the plate is probably not wrongly considered manly.
Moreover, a recent study shows that the consumption of onions can increase the male sex hormone testosterone production.
In addition to preventing cardiovascular and cancer diseases, the onion shines as one of the few effective remedies for stubborn belly fat induced by stress.
Moreover, men can take advantage of the benefits of onion juice for hair growth as well.
Onion Side Effects
Concerning the consumption of onions, only minor side effects for humans are known. Perhaps this is why they are a cornerstone of different cultures and cuisines all over the world.
Nevertheless, there are individual cases of allergies or intolerances to onions. So if you experience a strange reaction after eating onions, consult a doctor immediately.
How Much Onion per Day?
Studies link the consumption of 2-3 large onions per week with the most significant benefit in reducing various common cancers (Galeone et al. 200637).
According to these studies, on average, one-third of an onion a day is the healthiest. Nevertheless, it will not be a mishap if you eat more.
To keep onions healthy, you should store them in a cool, dry room. Once cut, keep onions in the refrigerator. Since both accelerate their spoilage, you should not store whole onions in the fridge or a plastic bag.
Onion Benefits for Health Are Underrated
If you are not afraid to shed a tear now and then, then add this superfood next door into your pantry.
Not only because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties is onion a staple food in many cultures.
Furthermore, its antioxidant power can prevent various types of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
However, the best thing about onions is that you can hardly use any other vegetable in such a versatile and straightforward way. With onion, you can pimp lots of savory or even sweet dishes.
But keep in mind, if you plan on making out after eating, brush your teeth!
Onion Benefits FAQ
Is it good to eat onions everyday?
According to studies, 2-3 big onions per week are ideal. So you may eat 1/3 of an onion per day to achieve optimal health benefits.
What are the side effects of onions?
Only minor side effects for humans are known. As long as the person concerned does not suffer from an allergy or intolerance, health authorities consider onion as safe.
Do onions cleanse the body?
Onion has strong antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects. This way, it helps to cleanse your body and boost your immune system.
Do onions lose nutrients when cooked?
Cooking can damage the organic sulfur compounds in onions. However, other nutrients and polyphenols are not lost. If you don’t like them raw, bake onions like potatoes. This way, the sulfur compounds stay active.
1Nicastro HL, Ross SA, Milner JA. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Mar;8(3):181-9. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0172. Epub 2015 Jan 13. Review. PubMed PMID: 25586902; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4366009.
2Lanzotti V, Romano A, Lanzuise S, Bonanomi G, Scala F. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of white onion, Allium cepa L. Phytochemistry. 2012 Feb;74:133-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.11.008. Epub 2011 Dec 12. PubMed PMID: 22169018.
3Slimestad R, Fossen T, Vågen IM. Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 12;55(25):10067-80. doi: 10.1021/jf0712503. Epub 2007 Nov 13. Review. PubMed PMID: 17997520.
4Sak K. Site-specific anticancer effects of dietary flavonoid quercetin. Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(2):177-93. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.864418. Epub 2013 Dec 30. Review. PubMed PMID: 24377461.
5Wang LS, Stoner GD. Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):281-90. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.05.020. Epub 2008 Jun 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 18571839; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2582525.
6Mlcek J, Jurikova T, Skrovankova S, Sochor J. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response. Molecules. 2016 May 12;21(5). doi: 10.3390/molecules21050623. Review. PubMed PMID: 27187333; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6273625.
7Townsend EA, Emala CW Sr. Quercetin acutely relaxes airway smooth muscle and potentiates β-agonist-induced relaxation via dual phosphodiesterase inhibition of PLCβ and PDE4. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013 Sep;305(5):L396-403. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00125.2013. Epub 2013 Jul 19. PubMed PMID: 23873842; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3763034.
8Sharma K, Mahato N, Lee YR. Systematic study on active compounds as antibacterial and antibiofilm agent in aging onions. J Food Drug Anal. 2018 Apr;26(2):518-528. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2017.06.009. Epub 2017 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 29567221.
9Hannan A, Humayun T, Hussain MB, Yasir M, Sikandar S. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (Allium cepa) against clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2010 Apr-Jun;22(2):160-3. PubMed PMID: 21702293.
10Ramos FA, Takaishi Y, Shirotori M, Kawaguchi Y, Tsuchiya K, Shibata H, Higuti T, Tadokoro T, Takeuchi M. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 17;54(10):3551-7. doi: 10.1021/jf060251c. PubMed PMID: 19127724.
11Wang S, Yao J, Zhou B, Yang J, Chaudry MT, Wang M, Xiao F, Li Y, Yin W. Bacteriostatic Effect of Quercetin as an Antibiotic Alternative In Vivo and Its Antibacterial Mechanism In Vitro. J Food Prot. 2018 Jan;81(1):68-78. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-214. PubMed PMID: 29271686.
12Chan KC, Hsu CC, Yin MC. Protective effect of three diallyl sulphides against glucose-induced erythrocyte and platelet oxidation, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Thromb Res. 2002 Dec 15;108(5-6):317-22. doi: 10.1016/s0049-3848(03)00106-3. PubMed PMID: 12676192.
13Vazquez-Prieto MA, Rodriguez Lanzi C, Lembo C, Galmarini CR, Miatello RM. Garlic and onion attenuates vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. J Nutr Metab. 2011;2011:475216. doi: 10.1155/2011/475216. Epub 2011 Aug 25. PubMed PMID: 21876795; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3163016.
14Brüll V, Burak C, Stoffel-Wagner B, Wolffram S, Nickenig G, Müller C, Langguth P, Alteheld B, Fimmers R, Naaf S, Zimmermann BF, Stehle P, Egert S. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 28;114(8):1263-77. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515002950. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 26328470; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4594049.
15Akash MS, Rehman K, Chen S. Spice plant Allium cepa: dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition. 2014 Oct;30(10):1128-37. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Mar 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 25194613.
16Eid HM, Haddad PS. The Antidiabetic Potential of Quercetin: Underlying Mechanisms. Curr Med Chem. 2017;24(4):355-364. doi: 10.2174/0929867323666160909153707. Review. PubMed PMID: 27633685.
17Murayyan AI, Manohar CM, Hayward G, Neethirajan S. Antiproliferative activity of Ontario grown onions against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Food Res Int. 2017 Jun;96:12-18. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.03.017. Epub 2017 Mar 11. PubMed PMID: 28528091.
18Fujiwara Y, Horlad H, Shiraishi D, Tsuboki J, Kudo R, Ikeda T, Nohara T, Takeya M, Komohara Y. Onionin A, a sulfur-containing compound isolated from onions, impairs tumor development and lung metastasis by inhibiting the protumoral and immunosuppressive functions of myeloid cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Nov;60(11):2467-2480. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500995. Epub 2016 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 27393711.
19Wang J, Huang S. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway. Exp Ther Med. 2018 Mar;15(3):2667-2673. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5666. Epub 2017 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 29467859; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5792763.
20Turati F, Guercio V, Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Galeone C. Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Sep;58(9):1907-14. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201400169. Epub 2014 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 24976533.
21Torres-Piedra M, Ortiz-Andrade R, Villalobos-Molina R, Singh N, Medina-Franco JL, Webster SP, Binnie M, Navarrete-Vázquez G, Estrada-Soto S. A comparative study of flavonoid analogues on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats: quercetin as a potential antidiabetic agent acting via 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibition. Eur J Med Chem. 2010 Jun;45(6):2606-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.02.049. Epub 2010 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 20346546.
22Ayachi SE, Paulmyer-Lacroix O, Verdier M, Alessi MC, Dutour A, Grino M. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-driven cortisone reactivation regulates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in adipose tissue of obese women. J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Mar;4(3):621-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.01811.x. PubMed PMID: 16460444.
23Matheson EM, Mainous AG 3rd, Carnemolla MA. The association between onion consumption and bone density in perimenopausal and postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women 50 years and older. Menopause. 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):756-9. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31819581a5. PubMed PMID: 19240657.
24Law YY, Chiu HF, Lee HH, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Wang CK. Consumption of onion juice modulates oxidative stress and attenuates the risk of bone disorders in middle-aged and post-menopausal healthy subjects. Food Funct. 2016 Feb;7(2):902-12. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01251a. PubMed PMID: 26686359.
25Hyun SW, Jang M, Park SW, Kim EJ, Jung YS. Onion (Allium cepa) extract attenuates brain edema. Nutrition. 2013 Jan;29(1):244-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.02.017. Epub 2012 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 22771051.
26Canani RB, Costanzo MD, Leone L, Pedata M, Meli R, Calignano A. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar 28;17(12):1519-28. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i12.1519. Review. PubMed PMID: 21472114; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3070119.
27Markowiak P, Śliżewska K. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 15;9(9). doi: 10.3390/nu9091021. Review. PubMed PMID: 28914794; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5622781.
28Akash MS, Rehman K, Chen S. Spice plant Allium cepa: dietary supplement for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition. 2014 Oct;30(10):1128-37. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Mar 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 25194613.
29Nejabat M, Salehi A, Noorani Azad P, Ashraf MJ. Effects of onion juice on the normal flora of eyelids and conjunctiva in an animal model. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014 May;7(5):e9678. doi: 10.5812/jjm.9678. Epub 2014 May 1. PubMed PMID: 25147716; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4138639.
30Kim S, Park YW, Lee E, Park SW, Park S, Noh H, Kim JW, Seong JK, Seo K. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy. J Vet Med Sci. 2016 Mar;78(3):419-25. doi: 10.1292/jvms.15-0455. Epub 2015 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 26607134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4829509.
31Sharquie KE, Al-Obaidi HK. Onion juice (Allium cepa L.), a new topical treatment for alopecia areata. J Dermatol. 2002 Jun;29(6):343-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2002.tb00277.x. PubMed PMID: 12126069.
32Draelos ZD. The ability of onion extract gel to improve the cosmetic appearance of postsurgical scars. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008 Jun;7(2):101-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00371.x. PubMed PMID: 18482012.
33Ko SH, Kim HS. Menopause-Associated Lipid Metabolic Disorders and Foods Beneficial for Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 13;12(1). doi: 10.3390/nu12010202. Review. PubMed PMID: 31941004; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7019719.
34Law YY, Chiu HF, Lee HH, Shen YC, Venkatakrishnan K, Wang CK. Consumption of onion juice modulates oxidative stress and attenuates the risk of bone disorders in middle-aged and post-menopausal healthy subjects. Food Funct. 2016 Feb;7(2):902-12. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01251a. PubMed PMID: 26686359.
35Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Oryem-Origa H. Traditional herbal remedies used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction in western Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):40-9. PubMed PMID: 15843130; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1831906.
36Banihani SA. Testosterone in Males as Enhanced by Onion (Allium Cepa L.). Biomolecules. 2019 Feb 21;9(2). doi: 10.3390/biom9020075. Review. PubMed PMID: 30795630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6406961.
37Galeone C, Pelucchi C, Levi F, Negri E, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Giacosa A, La Vecchia C. Onion and garlic use and human cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1027-32. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/84.5.1027. PubMed PMID: 17093154.