For a good reason, many indigenous peoples traditionally ate only organ meats. The lean tenderloin was discarded or eaten by dogs at best.
We do it the other way around today, but it’s a relatively new custom compared to the rest of human history.
However, let’s take a deeper scientific look at why eating liver can offer outstanding health benefits before you turn up your nose.
What Are the Benefits of Eating Liver?
The liver is one of the essential organs in both humans and animals.
Not only is it the largest internal organ, but it also has a variety of vital functions, such as:
- Metabolizing digested food from the intestines
- Storing glucose, vitamins, and minerals
- Removing toxins and medications from the bloodstream
With this in mind, a popular objection to eating liver is that it keeps toxins in the body.
Although the liver is responsible for neutralizing toxins (such as drugs, poisons, and other chemicals), it does not store them. Instead, toxins accumulate in the body’s fatty tissues and nervous system if it does not eliminate them.
On the other hand, the liver stores nutrients, such as essential vitamins and minerals, needed for detoxification.
However, when we think of superfoods, exotic plants from the New World immediately come to mind. For example, these are usually chia seeds, açaí, or goji berries.
Since the general perception of nutrition is that high amounts of essential vitamins and minerals are found exclusively in fruits and vegetables, this may not be surprising.
While vegetables exist that carry a concentrated load of micronutrients, decades of marketing supported fruits’ shiny reputation.
In any case, what hardly occurs to a soul is that animal products can also be among the most nutrient-dense.
But organ meats, also known as offal, which we throw away too often, are true superfoods next door.
Because of its unique range of micronutrients, liver is often referred to as the most nutrient-dense food on the planet (Hassan et al. 20121).
As we will see in a moment, liver is also a natural source of the nutrients most people lack.
Beef Liver Benefits
Among offal, beef liver is known as the queen of nutrients.
Hence, as we will see in the beef liver nutrition facts, its nutrient density touches almost every aspect of the human body, from the immune system to the brain to the bones.
Although beef liver tastes very intense, it can be a delicacy when appropriately prepared.
Furthermore, just 100 grams of liver is enough to give you a natural multivitamin boost (expressed as a percentage of the recommended daily intake*):
- Vitamin A: 634%
- Thiamine (B1): 13%
- Riboflavin (B2): 201%
- Niacin (B3): 88%
- Choline (B4): 107%
- Pantothenic acid (B5): 71%
- Vitamin B6: 51
- Folic acid (B9): 63%
- Vitamin B12: 1176%
- Vitamin C: 3%
- Tocopherol (E): 3%
- Vitamin K: 4%
Besides essential B vitamins, you are also providing your body with numerous essential minerals when eating beef liver:
- Calcium: 1%
- Iron: 36
- Magnesium: 5%
- Phosphorus: 50%
- Potassium: 10%
- Sodium: 3%
- Zinc: 35
- Copper: 714%
- Manganese: 18%
- Selenium: 52
Accordingly, beef liver can replace a B-complex and multivitamin pill and provide considerable amounts of iron, zinc, copper, phosphorus, and selenium.
Although vitamin B2 is not given as much attention as other vitamins, its health effects are not lesser.
On the other hand, researchers have found that even the slightest riboflavin deficiency significantly contributes to depression in women (Naghashpour et al. 20114).
We did not know about choline for a long time since it was not until 1998 that choline was recognized as an essential nutrient.
However, this designation means we have to absorb it through food since the liver can only synthesize it in minimal amounts.
Nevertheless, choline plays a vital role in several processes, such as brain and liver function, DNA synthesis, nervous system, fat metabolism, cell structure, and cell communication.
Because many people do not consume enough choline, they risk liver disease, atherosclerosis, and possibly neurological disorders (Zeisel et al. 20095).
Especially since it is the richest natural source of choline, just a few beef liver bites can prevent these diseases.
Copper is key to activating several enzymes that regulate energy production, brain function, and iron metabolism.
Because copper deficiency can cause anemia, beef liver is one of the few natural copper sources that can prevent this disease (Myint et al. 20186).
Moreover, researchers have implicated copper as a potential natural antidote to Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer (Tisato et al. 20107).
Nevertheless, excess copper can also cause liver problems in some people (Gaetke et al. 20148).
However, the other minerals in beef liver help neutralize copper levels.
For this reason, chicken or pork liver can be a healthy alternative for those sensitive to copper.
With this in mind, many people also dislike eating beef liver because of its intense taste. Hence, many of them reach out to calf liver.
Calf Liver Benefits
Strictly speaking, the calf is also a beef. If the meat comes from cattle less than a year old, it is called veal or calf.
Especially when it comes to liver, veal has the advantage that it does not taste as intense as more aged beef.
Accordingly, in my experience, liver from aged beef is not particularly beginner-friendly.
Despite the following similarly stunning nutrition facts of 100 grams of calf liver, it is significantly tastier for most people (in % of recommended daily intake*):
- Vitamin A: 1340%
- Thiamine (B1): 12%
- Riboflavin (B2): 180%
- Niacin (B3): 72%
- Choline (B4): 82%
- Pantothenic acid (B5): 71%
- Vitamin B6: 45
- Folic acid (B9): 88%
- Vitamin B12: 1208%
- Vitamin C: 1%
- Tocopherol (E): 3%
- Vitamin K: 2%
In terms of minerals, calf liver is also very similar to that of beef, although in some cases, it can outperform it:
- Calcium: 1%
- Iron: 33
- Magnesium: 6%
- Phosphorus: 48
- Potassium: 10%
- Sodium: 4%
- Zinc: 79%
- Copper: 753%
- Manganese: 15%
- Selenium: 36
In summary, a calf’s liver is probably the best natural source of copper, vitamin A, and vitamin B12.
Although vitamin A is one of the most critical nutrients on the planet, its benefits are little known.
- Essential for the preservation of eyesight
- Fights acne and creates radiant skin
- Reduces the risk of cancer
- Strengthens the immune system
- Promotes fertility and reproduction
Consequently, vitamin A is indispensable in all aspects of life.
And as a vitamin A source, no other food or dietary supplement can replace liver from calf or beef.
For example, plant foods do not contain vitamin A. They can only provide beta-carotene – a precursor that is not nearly as potent.
Maybe that’s one reason there is a widespread belief that carrots support your eyes’ sight.
In contrast, vitamin A in veal liver comes in the form of retinol, which is remarkably bioavailable. As a result, the body can absorb it enormously efficiently.
Many people today have a vitamin B deficiency—especially those who do not consume much animal food. Consequently, the market for vitamin B supplements is booming.
But neither are those dietary supplements the only solution nor are they particularly effective.
In contrast, nature provides a source of vitamin B better absorbed by the body. Consequently, any type of liver covers a staggering range of B vitamins.
Among other B vitamins, a calf’s liver provides, in particular, cobalamin. For example, this vitamin is essential for cellular energy production.
Moreover, you can obtain the fact that vitamin B12 is as crucial as vitamin A to possible deficiency symptoms. Too little cobalamin harms the following components and processes of the human body:
Furthermore, it is vital for neurological function, DNA production, and repair (O’Leary et al. 201013).
Although, in my experience, calf’s liver tastes sensationally good when prepared properly, you can’t get it everywhere. Chicken liver, on the other hand, is available on almost every corner.
Chicken Liver Benefits
Chicken liver is much more suitable for everyday use compared to beef. After its flavor is not so intense, it is part of many traditional cuisines.
For this reason, it is used in many liver pate restaurant dishes, such as duck liver.
It is also popularly baked, fried, or grilled on skewers.
If you prepare 100 grams of chicken liver in a pan and eat it, you will provide your body with the following nutrients (in % of the recommended daily requirement*):
- Vitamin A: 288%
- Thiamine (B1): 19%
- Riboflavin (B2): 136%
- Niacin (B3): 70%
- Choline (B4): 82
- Pantothenic acid (B5): 83%
- Vitamin B6: 42
- Folic acid (B9, B11, M): 140%
- Vitamin B12: 352%
- Vitamin C: 5%
However, chicken liver does not stop at vitamins. It can also provide a wide range of minerals:
- Calcium: 1%
- Iron: 72
- Magnesium: 7%
- Phosphorus: 44
- Potassium: 9%
- Sodium: 4%
- Zinc: 27%
- Copper: 27%
- Manganese: 19%
- Selenium: 126%
Checking the nutrient density, we can see that eating chicken liver can bring large amounts of folic acid and selenium into the body.
For example, for both nutrients, just 100 grams of chicken liver is enough to meet their entire daily requirement.
Folic acid is another B vitamin and is therefore often listed as B9.
It is mainly known to play a crucial role in fertility and pregnancy.
On the one hand, the essential B vitamin is responsible for cell growth in the fetus (Kamen 199714).
On the other hand, folic acid concentration in the follicular fluid of women undergoing infertility treatment is associated with higher fertilization rates and live births (Boxmeer et al. 200915).
Additionally, folic acid and copper, which are present in all types of liver, may also help men with fertility problems by increasing sperm concentration (Wong et al. 200216)
On top of that, folic acid may help with depression, according to a study that found a deficiency of folic acid in depressed patients and their diets (Bender et al. 201717).
For this reason, some psychiatrists treat depression through an all-meat carnivore diet.
Selenium is known as an anti-stress mineral. For example, it acts as an antioxidant against cell stress and inflammation (Rayman 201218).
Moreover, selenium can improve memory function in the elderly and inhibit aging by combating oxidative stress (Cardoso et al. 201619).
Pork Liver Benefits
Pork can also be incredibly healthy – at least if you eat the liver. It also has a comparatively low-intensity flavor and is popularly prepared with onions in traditional cooking.
However, a pork liver’s quality depends more on how the animal was raised and fed. Therefore, buying from a producer you trust tends to be advantageous.
However, if we take a closer look at the nutritional data, people rarely eat pork liver these days could be a mistake.
100 grams of braised pork liver contain the following vitamins (in % of the recommended daily allowance*):
- Vitamin A: 360%
- Thiamine (B1): 17%
- Riboflavin (B2): 201%
- Niacin (B3): 87%
- Choline (B4): 0%
- Pantothenic acid (B5): 48%
- Vitamin B6: 28
- Folic acid (B9): 41%
- Vitamin B12: 311%
- Vitamin C: 39
Moreover, the often highly underestimated liver of pigs convinces as a source of minerals:
- Calcium: 1%
- Iron: 100%
- Magnesium: 3%
- Phosphorus: 24
- Potassium: 4%
- Sodium: 2%
- Zinc: 45
- Copper: 32%
- Manganese: 15%
- Selenium: 96
In addition to being one of the rare animal sources of vitamin C, pork liver is a particularly efficient iron source.
I hardly need to advertise vitamin C at this point. The darling of the food industry is widely regarded as healthy.
On the other hand, animal products can provide vitamin C; on the other hand, it may be uncharted territory for many people.
Nonetheless, pork liver is a vitamin C source, which is why it has antioxidant and immune function-promoting properties.
Also, the body can better utilize vitamin C from animal sources since carbohydrates can block the vitamin’s absorption (Liang et al. 200120).
This mineral helps cells generate energy, plays a critical role in oxygenation in the body, and helps the immune system destroy harmful pathogens such as bacteria and viruses (Cherayil 201121).
Moreover, iron can help fight fatigue in both men and women.
Because iron deficiency lowers energy levels, fatigue often affects women during their reproductive years (Weinberg 201022).
In this context, the benefits of eating liver may provide a natural antidote. But how much liver is good for you, mainly since it contains a concentrated load of minerals in all its variations?
How Much Liver Is Good for You?
Now that we know why liver is considered nature’s multivitamin pill, the question is how often eating this concentrated micronutrient can be healthy.
In the end, just one serving of liver is enough to cover the weekly requirement of a wide variety of vitamins and minerals.
Accordingly, recent studies recommend eating liver several times a week due to the supply of valuable minerals (Kicinska et al. 201923).
So, how do you get the right portion of liver off, especially since it’s not precisely everyday food?
There are the following options that even people who are not big liver fans can manage:
- Eat about 100g of liver once a week
- Eat 25g portions of liver spread over the week
Besides, a recent study found that a single consumption of 66 grams of liver per month could make vitamin supplements obsolete for preschoolers in South Africa (van Stuijvenberg et al. 202024).
Accordingly, you do not have to eat liver every day if you don’t find it particularly tasty—the body stores nutrients.
Nevertheless, there are numerous ways to prepare veal and chicken liver deliciously to reap the multiple health benefits with joy.
Moreover, adding variety to your plate is not a mistake because of the different nutrients using different liver types.
Health Benefits of Eating Liver
Eating liver is usually said to have three main health benefits:
- Glowing skin
- Muscle growth
After taking a closer look at the nutrition facts, it seems evident that these three abilities can only represent a fraction of liver’s health benefits.
Therefore, I would like to explain the various benefits of eating liver.
1. Cognitive Function
Choline, which you can find in large amounts in beef liver, can improve cognitive performance, according to studies (Poly et al. 201125).
In contrast, choline deficiency can trigger dementia and Alzheimer’s (Zeisel et al. 200926).
In addition to choline, iron and copper minerals are essential for brain function.
And most people do not consume enough copper in their diet.
Furthermore, liver is a natural source of iron, the micronutrient most commonly deficient in people worldwide – especially in women.
Also, offal contains particularly easily absorbed heme iron, which helps synthesize neurotransmitters and support brain function (Beck et al. 201429).
On top of that, the selenium in liver also supports improved memory function and prevents dementia (Cardoso et al. 201630).
2. Mental Health
According to studies, choline can improve depression, anxiety, and mood disorders (Bjelland et al. 200931).
Besides, liver is an excellent source of folic acid and riboflavin. These are both substances whose consumption may be instrumental in preventing depression (Naghashpour et al. 201132; Bender et al. 201733).
Finally, eating liver is a great way to provide selenium.
With this in mind, a recent study suggests that optimal selenium levels are essential for reducing depressive symptoms and improving mood (Conner et al. 201534).
3. Skin Health
Beef liver is a rare natural source of vitamin A1, also known as retinol.
This antioxidant protects skin cells from oxidative stress, such as UV rays. Accordingly, it can slow the aging process, promote skin renewal, smooth it, and counteract acne (Park 201535).
Accordingly, recent studies recommend natural foods rich in zinc, vitamins A and E to fight acne (Ozuguz et al. 201436).
These are, of all things, the nutrients found in calf and beef liver.
Moreover, offal, such as liver, is an excellent source of collagen, offering tremendous benefits for skin and hair.
If you eat liver, you can confidently kick fructose-laden detox juices, which at best promote a fatty liver, to the curb.
That eating liver is healthy for the liver and detoxifying the body can’t be a coincidence.
Chicken liver, in particular, is full of coenzyme Q10 – a potent natural antioxidant (Hernandez-Camacho et al. 201837).
Moreover, even a tiny piece of beef liver can provide another vital coenzyme’s entire daily requirement, molybdenum.
Since molybdenum helps convert sulfides to sulfates, it helps the body break down and metabolize alcohol, and other toxins, such as drugs.
With this in mind, eating liver helps avoid high levels of sulfites, which can cause adverse health effects (Mendel et al. 200638).
5 Cancer Prevention
In addition to CoQ10, liver also contains antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E, and selenium, which protect cells from oxidative stress (Rayman 201239).
Therefore, they may scavenge free radicals that enter the body from UV rays, smoking, pollutants, or highly processed vegetable oils (Nishino et al. 200440).
Accordingly, these noble knights protect cells from damage, decreasing their chance of mutating into cancer cells.
And as we all know, prevention is better than cure. And the right natural foods, like liver, are a cornerstone of this strategy.
6. Immune Function
When it comes to the immune system, we continuously hear about vitamin C, which you can also find in all sorts of liver.
For a good reason, vitamin A deserves more limelight because it has been discovered to be the anti-infection vitamin (Green et al. 192841).
For example, the intestinal wall relies on vitamin A to form or maintain cells (Huang et al. 201842).
Furthermore, this barrier is essential in keeping pathogens away from organs.
Accordingly, adequate consumption of vitamin A by eating liver helps to ensure intact immune function.
Based on a recent study, vitamin A in the diet also reduces infections and mortality associated with pneumonia, tuberculosis, or malaria (Huang et al. 201844).
7. Muscle Gain
Firstly, liver is a premium protein source, vital for building and maintaining muscle mass.
For example, it can help combat age-related muscle wasting (Lord et al. 200745).
Also, it contains leucine. Since this is the most anabolic essential amino acid, it stimulates muscle growth on a cellular basis.
However, we now know excessive growth can harm health (Bremer et al. 201246).
Therefore, consuming proteins and amino acids in isolated form from dietary supplements is not purposeful.
For this reason, we should return to eating more liver and other offal, as they have a far better balance of nutrients, healthy fats, and leucine than lean meat.
Eating Liver Instead of Pills Is Good for You
What always fascinates me is why people prefer to eat artificial foods.
Liver is the best example of how nature offers us better ways than swallowing 20 different supplements a day.
With this in mind, there has been much debate about whether synthetic nutrients can provide the same benefits as natural nutrients.
But recently, researchers put an end to this debate.
They declared that whole foods are superior to synthetic supplements, as clinical studies have supported many isolated compounds’ lack of effect.
While natural food synergy increases immunity and bioavailability of nutrients, it reduces infections and chronic diseases (Natarajan et al. 201947).
Accordingly, whole natural foods contain nutrient combinations that we are better able to absorb and process overall.
In short, eating liver offers health benefits in a holistic way that supplements simply cannot reveal.
Liver Benefits FAQ
How often should you eat liver?
Although liver is full of nutrients, you can eat it several times a week. According to science, even once a month is enough for young children to boost their immune function.
Why is liver bad for you?
On the one hand, eating liver is good for you if you lack A and B vitamins. On the other hand, if you have too much copper, eating liver might be bad for you.
Is eating raw liver good for you?
Despite not much difference in nutrient density, eating raw liver can be good for you, like eating cooked liver.
Is liver good for your heart?
Eating beef liver may help to reduce the risk of heart disease due to vitamin K2.
1Hassan AA, Sandanger TM, Brustad M. Level of selected nutrients in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus L.). Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Mar 19;71:17997. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v71i0.17997. PubMed PMID: 22456051; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3417664.
2Macdonald HM, McGuigan FE, Fraser WD, New SA, Ralston SH, Reid DM. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism interacts with riboflavin intake to influence bone mineral density. Bone. 2004 Oct;35(4):957-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.018. PubMed PMID: 15454103.
3Jacques PF, Taylor A, Moeller S, Hankinson SE, Rogers G, Tung W, Ludovico J, Willett WC, Chylack LT Jr. Long-term nutrient intake and 5-year change in nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;123(4):517-26. doi: 10.1001/archopht.123.4.517. PubMed PMID: 15824226.
4Naghashpour M, Amani R, Nutr R, Nematpour S, Haghighizadeh MH. Riboflavin status and its association with serum hs-CRP levels among clinical nurses with depression. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):340-7. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2011.10719977. PubMed PMID: 22081620.
5Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):615-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19906248; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2782876.
6Myint ZW, Oo TH, Thein KZ, Tun AM, Saeed H. Copper deficiency anemia: review article. Ann Hematol. 2018 Sep;97(9):1527-1534. doi: 10.1007/s00277-018-3407-5. Epub 2018 Jun 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 29959467.
7Tisato F, Marzano C, Porchia M, Pellei M, Santini C. Copper in diseases and treatments, and copper-based anticancer strategies. Med Res Rev. 2010 Jul;30(4):708-49. doi: 10.1002/med.20174. Review. PubMed PMID: 19626597.
8Gaetke LM, Chow-Johnson HS, Chow CK. Copper: toxicological relevance and mechanisms. Arch Toxicol. 2014 Nov;88(11):1929-38. doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1355-y. Epub 2014 Sep 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 25199685; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4339675.
9Sommer A. Preventing blindness and saving lives: the centenary of vitamin A. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Jan;132(1):115-7. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.5309. PubMed PMID: 24407830.
10Ozuguz P, Dogruk Kacar S, Ekiz O, Takci Z, Balta I, Kalkan G. Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014 Jun;33(2):99-102. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2013.808656. Epub 2013 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 23826827.
11Sun SY, Lotan R. Retinoids and their receptors in cancer development and chemoprevention. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002 Jan;41(1):41-55. doi: 10.1016/s1040-8428(01)00144-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 11796231.
12Clagett-Dame M, Knutson D. Vitamin A in reproduction and development. Nutrients. 2011 Apr;3(4):385-428. doi: 10.3390/nu3040385. Epub 2011 Mar 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 22254103; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3257687.
13O’Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010 Mar;2(3):299-316. doi: 10.3390/nu2030299. Epub 2010 Mar 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 22254022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3257642.
14Kamen B. Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. Review. PubMed PMID: 9420019.
15Boxmeer JC, Macklon NS, Lindemans J, Beckers NG, Eijkemans MJ, Laven JS, Steegers EA, Steegers-Theunissen RP. IVF outcomes are associated with biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway in monofollicular fluid. Hum Reprod. 2009 May;24(5):1059-66. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dep009. Epub 2009 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 19221098.
16Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, Menkveld R, Zielhuis GA, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2002 Mar;77(3):491-8. doi: 10.1016/s0015-0282(01)03229-0. PubMed PMID: 11872201.
17Bender A, Hagan KE, Kingston N. The association of folate and depression: A meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Dec;95:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.07.019. Epub 2017 Jul 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28759846.
18Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9. Epub 2012 Feb 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 22381456.
19Rita Cardoso B, Apolinário D, da Silva Bandeira V, Busse AL, Magaldi RM, Jacob-Filho W, Cozzolino SM. Effects of Brazil nut consumption on selenium status and cognitive performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):107-16. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0829-2. Epub 2015 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 25567069.
20Liang WJ, Johnson D, Jarvis SM. Vitamin C transport systems of mammalian cells. Mol Membr Biol. 2001 Jan-Mar;18(1):87-95. doi: 10.1080/09687680110033774. Review. PubMed PMID: 11396616.
21Cherayil BJ. The role of iron in the immune response to bacterial infection. Immunol Res. 2011 May;50(1):1-9. doi: 10.1007/s12026-010-8199-1. Review. PubMed PMID: 21161695; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3085559.
22Weinberg ED. The hazards of iron loading. Metallomics. 2010 Nov;2(11):732-40. doi: 10.1039/c0mt00023j. Epub 2010 Sep 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 21072364.
23Kicińska A, Glichowska P, Mamak M. Micro- and macroelement contents in the liver of farm and wild animals and the health risks involved in liver consumption. Environ Monit Assess. 2019 Feb 6;191(3):132. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7274-x. PubMed PMID: 30726514; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6373291.
24van Stuijvenberg ME, Schoeman SE, Nel J, le Roux M, Dhansay MA. Liver is widely eaten by preschool children in the Northern Cape province of South Africa: Implications for routine vitamin A supplementation. Matern Child Nutr. 2020 Jul;16(3):e12931. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12931. Epub 2019 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 31845541; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7296811.
25Poly C, Massaro JM, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Cho E, Krall E, Jacques PF, Au R. The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6):1584-91. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.008938. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 22071706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3252552.
26Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):615-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00246.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19906248; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2782876.
27Viktorinova A, Ursinyova M, Trebaticka J, Uhnakova I, Durackova Z, Masanova V. Changed Plasma Levels of Zinc and Copper to Zinc Ratio and Their Possible Associations with Parent- and Teacher-Rated Symptoms in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Jan;169(1):1-7. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0395-3. Epub 2015 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 26063047.
28Li SO, Wang JL, Bjørklund G, Zhao WN, Yin CH. Serum copper and zinc levels in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Neuroreport. 2014 Oct 22;25(15):1216-20. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000251. PubMed PMID: 25162784.
29Beck KL, Conlon CA, Kruger R, Coad J. Dietary determinants of and possible solutions to iron deficiency for young women living in industrialized countries: a review. Nutrients. 2014 Sep 19;6(9):3747-76. doi: 10.3390/nu6093747. Review. PubMed PMID: 25244367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4179187.
30Rita Cardoso B, Apolinário D, da Silva Bandeira V, Busse AL, Magaldi RM, Jacob-Filho W, Cozzolino SM. Effects of Brazil nut consumption on selenium status and cognitive performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):107-16. doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0829-2. Epub 2015 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 25567069.
31Bjelland I, Tell GS, Vollset SE, Konstantinova S, Ueland PM. Choline in anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;90(4):1056-60. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.27493. Epub 2009 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 19656836.
32Naghashpour M, Amani R, Nutr R, Nematpour S, Haghighizadeh MH. Riboflavin status and its association with serum hs-CRP levels among clinical nurses with depression. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):340-7. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2011.10719977. PubMed PMID: 22081620.
33Bender A, Hagan KE, Kingston N. The association of folate and depression: A meta-analysis. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Dec;95:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.07.019. Epub 2017 Jul 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28759846.
34Conner TS, Richardson AC, Miller JC. Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults. J Nutr. 2015 Jan;145(1):59-65. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.198010. Epub 2014 Nov 5. PubMed PMID: 25378685.
35Park K. Role of micronutrients in skin health and function. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2015 May;23(3):207-17. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2015.003. Epub 2015 May 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 25995818; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4428712.
36Ozuguz P, Dogruk Kacar S, Ekiz O, Takci Z, Balta I, Kalkan G. Evaluation of serum vitamins A and E and zinc levels according to the severity of acne vulgaris. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2014 Jun;33(2):99-102. doi: 10.3109/15569527.2013.808656. Epub 2013 Jul 5. PubMed PMID: 23826827.
37Hernández-Camacho JD, Bernier M, López-Lluch G, Navas P. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease. Front Physiol. 2018;9:44. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00044. eCollection 2018. Review. PubMed PMID: 29459830; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5807419.
38Mendel RR, Bittner F. Cell biology of molybdenum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jul;1763(7):621-35. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.03.013. Epub 2006 May 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 16784786.
39Rayman MP. Selenium and human health. Lancet. 2012 Mar 31;379(9822):1256-68. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61452-9. Epub 2012 Feb 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 22381456.
40Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, Kikuchi N, Nakaya N, Nishino Y, Tsubono Y, Tsuji I. Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study. JAMA. 2006 Sep 13;296(10):1255-65. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.10.1255. PubMed PMID: 16968850.
41Green HN, Mellanby E. VITAMIN A AS AN ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENT. Br Med J. 1928 Oct 20;2(3537):691-6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.2.3537.691. PubMed PMID: 20774205; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2456524.
42Huang Z, Liu Y, Qi G, Brand D, Zheng SG. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. J Clin Med. 2018 Sep 6;7(9). doi: 10.3390/jcm7090258. Review. PubMed PMID: 30200565; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6162863.
43Sturgeon C, Fasano A. Zonulin, a regulator of epithelial and endothelial barrier functions, and its involvement in chronic inflammatory diseases. Tissue Barriers. 2016;4(4):e1251384. doi: 10.1080/21688370.2016.1251384. eCollection 2016. Review. PubMed PMID: 28123927; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5214347.
44Huang Z, Liu Y, Qi G, Brand D, Zheng SG. Role of Vitamin A in the Immune System. J Clin Med. 2018 Sep 6;7(9). doi: 10.3390/jcm7090258. Review. PubMed PMID: 30200565; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6162863.
45Lord C, Chaput JP, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Labonté M, Dionne IJ. Dietary animal protein intake: association with muscle mass index in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 Sep-Oct;11(5):383-7. PubMed PMID: 17657359.
46Bremer AA, Mietus-Snyder M, Lustig RH. Toward a unifying hypothesis of metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):557-70. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2912. Epub 2012 Feb 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 22351884; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3289531.
47Natarajan TD, Ramasamy JR, Palanisamy K. Nutraceutical potentials of synergic foods: a systematic review. J. Ethn. Food. 2019;6(27). doi.org/10.1186/s42779-019-0033-3.